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660 To Theo van Gogh. Arles, on or about Monday, 13 August 1888.

metadata
No. 660 (Brieven 1990 665, Complete Letters 524)
From: Vincent van Gogh
To: Theo van Gogh
Date: Arles, on or about Monday, 13 August 1888

Source status
Original manuscript

Location
Amsterdam, Van Gogh Museum, inv. nos. b565 a-b V/1962

Date
The letter was written before Wednesday, 15 August, the day Van Gogh sent a telegram to Theo to tell him that Milliet would be arriving on Friday (letter 661) – in the present letter he still thinks it will be Sunday. It is also likely that it follows letter 659 of about Sunday, 12 August: in that one he acknowledges receipt of his painting supplies, and this would have enabled him to start the new study of barges with men unloading sand that he mentions here. This dating also makes it plausible for Vincent to have asked Theo whether the drawings he sent on 8 August (letter 657) had meanwhile arrived. For all these reasons we have dated the letter on or about Monday, 13 August 1888.

Ongoing topics
Milliet takes paintings to Paris (652)
Gauguin coming to Arles (602)

Sketch

  1. Quay with sand barges (F - / JH 1557), letter sketch

original text
 1r:1
Mon cher Theo.
hier j’ai passé la soirée avec ce sous lieutenant et il compte partir Vendredi d’ici alors il s’arrêtera une nuit à Clermont et de Clermont il t’enverra une dépêche pour te dire par quel train il arrive. Dimanche matin selon toutes probabilités.
Le rouleau qu’il t’apportera contient 36 études,1 dans le nombre il y en a beaucoup dont je suis desespérement mécontent et que pourtant je t’envoie lorsquea cela te donnera quand même une idée vague de bien beaux motifs dans la nature.
il y a par exemple une pochade que j’ai faite de moi chargé de boites, de batons, d’une toile, sur la route ensoleillée de Tarascon,2 il y a une vue du Rhône où le ciel et l’eau sont d’une couleur d’absinthe avec un pont bleu et des figures de voyous noires,3 il y a le semeur,4 un lavoir,5 et d’autres encore tout à fait mal venus et inachevés, surtout un grand paysage avec des brousailles.6
 1v:2
Qu’est devenu le Souvenir de Mauve,7 n’en ayant plus entendu parler j’ai été porté à croire que Tersteeg t’aurait dit quelquechose de desagréable pour faire savoir qu’on le refuserait ou autre misère. Naturellement je ne m’en ferais pas de mauvais sang dans ce cas.
Je travaille dans ce moment à une etude comme ceci

[sketch A]
des bateaux vu d’en haut d’un quai, les deux bateaux sont d’un rose violacé, l’eau est très verte, pas de ciel, un drapeau tricolore au mât. Un ouvrier avec une brouette décharge du sable.8 J’en ai aussi un dessin.9 As tu reçu les trois dessins du jardin.10 On finira par ne plus les prendre à la poste parceque le format est trop grand.
Je crains que je n’aurai pas un bien beau modèle de femme. elle avait promis puis elle a à ce qui parait gagné des sous en  1v:3 faisant la noce et a mieux à faire. Elle était extraordinaire, le regard était comme celui de Delacroix. et une tournure bizarre primitive. Je prends les chôses avec patience faute de voir d’autres moyens de les supporter mais c’est agaçant cette contrariété continuelle avec les modèles. J’espère faire de ces jours ci une étude de lauriers roses.11 Si on peignait lisse comme Bouguereau les gens n’auraient pas honte de se laisser peindre mais je crois que cela m’a fait perdre des modèles qu’on trouvait que c’etait “mal fait”, ce n’était que des tableaux pleins de peinture que je faisais.– Alors les bonnes putains ont peur de se compromettre et qu’on se moquera de leur portrait. Mais il y a de quoi se décourager presque quant on sent qu’on pourrait faire des chôses si les gens avaient plus de bonne volonté. Je ne peux pas me résigner à dire “les raisins sont verts”,12 je ne m’en console pas de ne pas avoir plus de modèles. Enfin il faut patienter et en rechercher d’autres.
Maintenant la soeur viendra bientôt passer un temps avec toi, je n’en doute pas qu’elle s’amusera.13
 1r:4
C’est une perspective assez triste de devoir se dire que jamais peutêtre la peinture que je fais aura une valeur quelconque. Si cela valait ce que cela coute je pourrais me dire, je ne me suis jamais occupé de l’argent.
Mais dans les circonstances présentes au contraire on en absorbe. Enfin et tout de même il faut encore continuer et chercher à mieux faire.
Bien souvent il me semble plus sage d’aller chez Gauguin au lieu de lui recommander la vie d’ici, je crains tant qu’au bout du compte il ne se plaigne d’avoir été dérangé. Ici cela nous sera-t-il possible de vivre chez nous, pourrons nous arriver à joindre les deux bouts. lorsqueb cela c’est un essai nouveau. Or en Bretagne nous pouvons calculer ce que cela coutera et ici je n’en sais rien. Je continue à trouver la vie assez chère et on n’avance guère avec les gens. Ici il y aurait des lits et quelques meubles à acheter puis les frais de son voyage et tout ce qu’il doit. Cela me parait risquer plus que de juste lorsque en Bretagne Bernard et lui dépensent si peu. Enfin il faudra bientôt se décider et de mon côté je n’ai pas de preferences. C’est la simple question de decider où nous avons le plus de chance de vivre à bon marché.
 2r:5
Je dois écrire encore aujourd’hui à Gauguin pour lui demander ce qu’il paye des modèles et pour savoir s’il y en a. Voilà si on se fait vieux il faut bien rayer ce qui est illusion et calculer avant de se lancer dans les chôses. Et si on peut croire étant plus jeune que par le travail assidu on puisse suffire à ses besoins, cela devient de plus en plus douteux actuellement. J’ai encore dit cela à Gauguin dans ma dernière lettre. que si on peignait comme Bouguereau qu’alors on pouvait espérer de gagner – mais que le public ne changera jamais et n’aime que les choses douces et lisses. Avec un talent plus austère il faut pas compter sur le produit de son travail, la plupart des gens intelligents assez pour comprendre et aimer les tableaux impressionistes sont et resteront trop pauvres pour acheter. Est ce que Gauguin ou moi travaillerons moins pour cela – non – mais nous serons obligés d’accepter la pauvreté et l’isolement social de parti pris. Et pour commencer installons nous là où la vie coûte le moins. Tant mieux si le succes vient, tant mieux si un jour nous nous trouvions plus au large.
 2v:6
ce qui me frappe le plus au coeur dans l’oeuvre de Zola c’est cette figure de Bongrand-Jundt.–
C’est si vrai ce qu’il dit: Vous croyez, malheureux, que lorsque l’artiste a conquis son talent et sa reputation, qu’alors il est à l’abri?
Au contraire alors il lui est defendu désormais de produire une chôse pas tout à fait bien. Sa réputation même l’oblige à soigner d’autant plus son travail que les chances de vente se rarifient. Au moindre signe de faiblesse toute la meute jalouse lui tombe dessus et demolit justement cette reputation et cette foi qu’un public changeant et perfide momentanément a eue en lui.14
Plus fort que cela est ce que dit Carlyle. Vous connaissez les lucioles qui au Brésil sont si lumineux que les dames le soir les piquent avec des epingles dans leur chevelure. C’est très beau la gloire mais là, voilà, c’est à l’artiste ce que l’épingle de toilette est à ces insectes.
Vous voulez réussir et briller, savez vous au juste ce que vous désirez.15
Or j’ai en horreur le succes, je crains le lendemain de fête d’une réussite des impressionistes, les jours difficiles déjà de maintenant nous paraîtront plus tard “le bon temps.”
Eh bien Gauguin et moi nous devons prévoir, nous devons travailler à avoir un toit sur la tête, des lits, l’indispensable enfin pour soutenir le siege de l’insuccès qui durera toute notre existence.
 2v:7
et nous devons nous fixer dans l’endroit le moins cher. Alors nous aurons la tranquilité necessaire de produire beaucoup, même en vendant peu ou pas.
mais si les dépenses excedaient les revenus nous aurions tort de trop esperer que tout s’arrangera par la vente de nos tableaux. Nous serions au contraire obligés de nous en défaire à tout prix au mauvais moment.
Je conclus. Vivre à peu près en moines ou ermites avec le travail pour passion dominatrice, avec resignation du bien être. La nature, le beau temps d’ici, cela c’est l’avantage du midi. Mais je crois que jamais Gauguin renoncera à la bataille Parisienne, il a cela trop au coeur et croit plus que moi à un succes durable. Cela ne me fera pas du mal, au contraire je me desespere peut etre trop. Laissons lui donc cette illusion mais sachons que ce qu’il lui faudra toujours c’est le logement et le pain quotidien et la couleur. C’est là le defaut de sa cuirasse et c’est parce qu’il s’endette maintenant qu’il serait foutu d’avance. Nous autres en lui venant en aide lui rendons la victoire parisienne en effet possible.
 2r:8
Si j’avais les mêmes ambitions que lui nous ne nous accorderions probablement pas. Mais je ne tiens ni à ma réussite ni à mon bonheur, je tiens à la durée des entreprises energiques des impressionistes, je tiens à cette question d’asile et de pain quotidien pour eux. Et je m’en fais un crime d’en avoir lorsque avec la même somme deux peuvent vivre.
Si on est peintre ou bien vous passez pour un fou ou bien pour un riche. Une tasse de lait vous revient à un franc, une tartine à deux et les tableaux ne se vendent pas. Voilà ce pourquoi il faut se combiner comme faisaient les vieux moines, les frères de la vie commune de nos bruyères Hollandaises.16 Je m’aperçois déjà que Gauguin espère la réussite – il ne saurait se passer de Paris, il n’a pas la prévoyance de l’infini de la gêne. Tu conçois combien cela m’est absolument égal dans ces circonstances de rester ici ou de m’en aller. Il faut lui laisser faire sa bataille. il la gagnera d’ailleurs. Trop loin de Paris il se croirait inactif. Mais gardons pour nous l’absolue indifférence pour ce qui est succes ou insucces. J’avais commencé à signer les toiles mais je me suis vite arrêté, cela me semblait trop bête. Sur une marine il y a une tres exorbitante signature rouge parceque je voulais une note rouge dans le vert.17 Enfin tu les verras bientôt. Fin semaine sera un peu raide j’espère donc plutôt avoir ta lettre un jour plus tot qu’un jour plus tard.
Poignée de main.

t. à t.
Vincent.

translation
 1r:1
My dear Theo,
Yesterday I spent the evening with that second lieutenant, and he plans to leave here on Friday, then he’ll stay one night in Clermont, and from Clermont he’ll send you a telegram to tell you by which train he’ll be arriving. Sunday morning, in all probability.
The roll that he’ll bring you contains 36 studies;1 among them there are many with which I’m desperately dissatisfied, and which I’m sending you anyway because it will still give you a vague idea of some really fine subjects in the countryside.
For example, there’s a quick sketch I made of myself laden with boxes, sticks, a canvas, on the sunny Tarascon road;2 there’s a view of the Rhône, in which the sky and the water are the colour of absinthe, with a blue bridge and black figures of ruffians;3 there’s the sower,4 a washing-place5 and still others, not at all successful and unfinished, especially a large landscape with brushwood.6  1v:2
What’s happened to the Souvenir de Mauve?7 Having heard no more about it, I was inclined to believe that Tersteeg may have said something disagreeable to you, to let you know that it would be refused, or some other unpleasantness. Naturally, I wouldn’t get worked up about it in that case.
At the moment I’m working on a study like this:

[sketch A]

boats seen from a quay, from above; the two boats are a purplish pink, the water is very green, no sky, a tricolour flag on the mast. A workman with a wheelbarrow is unloading sand.8 I have a drawing of it too.9 Did you receive the three drawings of the garden?10 They’ll end up by not taking them at the post office any more, because the format’s too big.
I fear that I won’t have a very fine female model. She had promised, then as it appears, she earned a few sous with  1v:3 some riotous living and has better things to do. She was extraordinary; her expression was like that of Delacroix. And a strange, primitive bearing. I take things with patience, for want of seeing other ways of enduring them, but it’s annoying, this constant aggravation with models. I hope to do a study of oleanders in the next few days.11 If we painted smoothly like Bouguereau people wouldn’t be ashamed to let themselves be painted, but I believe it’s made me lose models, that people found that it was ‘badly done’, it was only pictures full of painting that I was doing. So the good whores are afraid of being compromised, and that people will laugh at their portraits. But it’s enough to make you almost lose heart when you feel that you could do things if people had more good will. I can’t resign myself to saying, ‘grapes are sour’;12 I can’t get over the fact that I don’t have more models. Well, we must be patient and look for others.
Now our sister will come soon to spend some time with you; I have no doubt that she’ll enjoy herself.13  1r:4
It’s a rather sad prospect to have to say to myself that the painting I do will perhaps never have any value. If it was worth what it costs I could say to myself, I’ve never concerned myself about money.
But in the present circumstances, on the contrary, one will soak it up. Ah well, and all the same, we must still continue and try to do better.
It very often seems wiser to me to go to Gauguin instead of recommending to him the life down here; I so much fear that in the end he’ll complain of having been inconvenienced. Will it be possible to live at home here, will we manage to make ends meet? Because that’s a new venture. In Brittany, now, we can calculate what it will cost, and here I have no idea. I continue to find life quite expensive, and you don’t get very far with the people. Here there would be beds and some pieces of furniture to buy, and the expenses of his journey and everything he owes. That seems to me to risk more than is proper, when he and Bernard spend so little in Brittany. Well, we’ll have to make up our minds soon, and for my part I have no preferences. It’s a simple question of deciding where we have the most chance of living cheaply.  2r:5
I must write to Gauguin today to ask him what he pays models, and to find out if there are any. There you are, if you’re getting old, it’s important to rule out what is an illusion and to calculate before jumping into things. And if when you’re younger you’re able to believe that you can meet your needs through diligent work, it becomes more and more doubtful now. I also told Gauguin that in my last letter. That if we painted like Bouguereau, that we could then hope to earn — but that the public will never change and only likes soft and smooth things. With a more austere talent, you can’t depend on the product of your labours; most of the people intelligent enough to understand and love Impressionist paintings are and will remain too poor to buy. Will Gauguin or I work less for that — no — but we’ll be obliged to accept poverty and social isolation as a prior condition. And to start with, let’s set ourselves up where living costs the least. So much the better if success comes, so much the better if one day we found ourselves better off.  2v:6
What touches me most deeply in Zola’s L’oeuvre is that character Bongrand-Jundt.
It’s so true what he says: You believe, unfortunate souls, that when the artist has mastered his talent and gained his reputation, that then he’s home and dry?
On the contrary, from that moment on he isn’t allowed to produce a thing that isn’t good in every way. His very reputation obliges him to take all the more care over his work as chances of sales diminish. At the least sign of weakness the whole jealous pack falls on him and destroys precisely that reputation and that faith that a fickle and treacherous public briefly had in him.14
Stronger than that is what Carlyle says. You know the fireflies in Brazil that are so luminous that in the evening ladies stick them into their hair with pins. It’s very fine, fame, but see, it is to the artist what the hairpin is to those insects.
You wish to succeed and shine; do you really know what you want?15
Now I have a horror of success; I’m afraid of the morning after following a success by the Impressionists; even the present difficult days will later seem like ‘the good times’ to us.
Well, Gauguin and I must look ahead, we must work at getting a roof over our heads, beds; the essentials, in short, to endure the siege by failure that will last the whole of our life.  2v:7
And we must settle down in the least expensive place. Then we’ll have the peace of mind needed to produce a large amount, even if we sell little or nothing.
But if expenses exceeded income, we’d be wrong to hope too much that everything would work out through the sale of our paintings. On the contrary, we’d be obliged to part with them at any price at the wrong time.
I conclude. Living more or less like monks or hermits, with work as our ruling passion, giving up well-being. Nature, the fine weather down here, that’s the advantage of the south. But I believe that Gauguin will never give up the battle of Paris; he has that too much at heart, and believes in a lasting success more than I do. That won’t do me any harm; on the contrary, perhaps I despair too much. So let’s leave him this illusion, but let’s be aware that what he’ll always need is lodgings, and his daily bread, and paint. That’s where the chink in his armour is, and it’s because he’s getting into debt now that he’ll be done for beforehand. By coming to his aid, the two of us make his victory in Paris possible, in fact.  2r:8
If I had the same ambitions as he has, we probably wouldn’t get on well together. But I don’t care about my success nor about my happiness, I care about the continuation of the energetic undertakings of the Impressionists, I care about this question of a refuge and of daily bread for them. And I feel it a crime that I have that, while two can live on the same amount.
If you’re a painter, you’re taken either for a madman or for a rich man. A cup of milk costs you one franc, a slice of bread and butter two, and paintings don’t sell. That’s why we have to join together as the old monks did, the Brethren of the Common Life of our Dutch heathlands.16 I realize already that Gauguin hopes for success — he couldn’t do without Paris, he doesn’t foresee the infinity of poverty. You understand how far in these circumstances it’s absolutely one and the same to me to stay here or to leave. We have to allow him to fight his battle. He’ll win it, what’s more. Too far from Paris, he would think himself idle. But for ourselves let’s keep a total indifference regarding success or failure. I’d begun to sign my canvases, but I soon stopped; it seemed too silly to me. On a seascape there’s a very outrageous red signature, because I wanted a red note in the green.17 You’ll see them soon, anyway. Weekend will be a bit tough, so I hope to have your letter a day early rather than a day late.
Handshake.

Ever yours,
Vincent
notes
1. This second consignment from Arles can be reconstructed to a significant extent. As well as the five works mentioned by Van Gogh (see nn. 2-6 below), the batch certainly included the following seven paintings, which we know that Theo had from later letters: Joseph Roulin (F 433 / JH 1524 ), Mousmé (F 431 / JH 1519 ), The harvest (F 412 / JH 1440 ), Fishing boats at sea (F 417 / JH 1453 ), Newly mown lawn with a weeping tree (F 428 / JH 1499 ), Cottages in Saintes-Maries (F 419 / JH 1465 ) and Rocks with a tree (F 466 / JH 1489 ). See letters 662, 673, 678 and 680.
It can be assumed from the provenance (Jo van Gogh-Bonger) that the following 22 works, painted between May and August 1888 and for the most part mentioned in the letters, were also part of the consignment: View of Arles with irises in the foreground (F 409 / JH 1416 ), Farmhouse in a wheatfield (F 408 / JH 1417 ), Landscape with the edge of a road (F 567 / JH 1419 ), Field with farmhouses (F 576 / JH 1423), Still life with coffeepot (F 410 / JH 1426 ), Basket of lemons (F 384 / JH 1425 ), Daisies in a bowl (F 591 / JH 1429), Fishing boats at sea (F 415 / JH 1452 ), Fishing boats on the beach at Saintes-Maries (F 413 / JH 1460 ), Row of cottages in Saintes-Maries (F 420 / JH 1462 ), Wheatfield with setting sun (F 465 / JH 1473 ), Zouave (F 423 / JH 1486 ), Seated Zouave (F 424 / JH 1488 ), Garden with flowers (F 430 / JH 1510 ), Garden with flowers (F 429 / JH 1513 ), Farmhouse (F 565 / JH 1443 ), Head of a girl (F 535 / JH 1467), Wheatfield (F 411 / JH 1476 ), Arles seen from the wheatfields (F 545 / JH 1477 ), Wheatfield with sheaves (F 561 / JH 1480 ), Wheatfield (F 564 / JH 1475 ) and Wheatfield with sheaves (F 558 / JH 1481 ).
The following works from the May-August 1888 period, whose provenance cannot be traced back to Jo van Gogh-Bonger with certainty, are candidates for the remaining two studies in the batch: The Langlois bridge with a lady with a parasol (F 570 / JH 1421 ), Wild flowers in a majolica jug (F 600 / JH 1424 ), View of Saintes-Maries (F 416 / JH 1447 ) and Haystacks (F 425 / JH 1442 ). The last of these is signed, and this makes it likely that it was sent to Theo (cf. the remark about signing works at the end of the letter).
a. Read: ‘puisque’.
2. The painter on the road to Tarascon (F 448 / JH 1491 ).
3. The Trinquetaille bridge (F 426 / JH 1468 ).
4. Sower with setting sun (F 422 / JH 1470 ).
5. Canal with washerwomen (F 427 / JH 1490 ).
6. Sunset at Montmajour (F - / JH - ). See letter 636, n. 3.
7. Pink peach trees (‘Souvenir de Mauve’) (F 394 / JH 1379 ), dedicated to Mauve and given to his widow. See letter 590, n. 5.
8. The letter sketch Quay with sand barges (F - / JH 1557) is after the painting Quay with sand barges (F 449 / JH 1558 ).
9. The drawing is Quay with sand barges (F 1462 / JH 1556 ). Van Gogh added the drawing from the consignment that Milliet took to Theo; see letter 662.
10. Garden with flowers (F 1456 / JH 1537 ), Garden of a bathhouse (F 1457 / JH 1539 ) and Garden with flowers (F 1455 / JH 1512 ). See letter 657.
11. Van Gogh made two paintings of oleanders: Oleander branches in a majolica jug (F 593 / JH 1566) and Oleander branches in a majolica jug (F 594 / JH 1567).
12. The saying ‘grapes are sour’ is taken from Jean de La Fontaine, Le renard et les raisins, Fables, iii, 11. See Fontaine 1974, vol. 1, p. 122.
13. Willemien stayed with Theo for a couple of weeks; she went to Paris on 15 August (FR b2421) and stayed until early September (letter 672). Originally Elisabeth was to have gone with her; cf. letter 615, n. 7.
b. Read: ‘puisque’.
14. Cf. the following passage from chapter 7: ‘Oh, the funk! You young people, you think you know it, but you can’t even imagine it, because, dear God, you folk, if you make a bad job of a work, you’re at liberty to do your utmost to make a better one; nobody will slate you, whereas we, the old men, who have shown our stature, who are obliged to measure up to ourselves, if not to make progress; we cannot slacken without tumbling into a common grave. Go then, famous man, great artist, cudgel your brains, get your blood up, to rise still further, ever higher, ever higher; and, if, at the summit, you find yourself treading on the spot, count yourself fortunate, use your feet to tread for as long as possible, and if you feel you’re going downhill, well then, stop breaking yourself, wallowing in the death-throes of your talent, which is outmoded, in the neglect of your immortal works in which you find yourself, overwhelmed by your impotent efforts to create more!’ (Ah! le trac, jeunes gens, vous croyez le connaître, et vous ne vous en doutez même pas, parce que, mon Dieu! vous autres, si vous ratez un oeuvre, vous en êtes quittes pour vous efforcer d’en faire une meilleure, personne ne vous accable; tandis que nous, les vieux, nous qui avons donné notre mesure, qui sommes forcés d’être égaux à nous-mêmes, sinon de progresser, nous ne pouvons faiblir, sans culbuter dans la fosse commune... Va donc, homme célèbre, grand artiste, mange-toi la cervelle, brûle ton sang, pour monter encore, toujours plus haut, toujours plus haut; et, si tu piétines sur place, au sommet, estime-toi heureux, use tes pieds à piétiner le plus longtemps possible; et, si tu sens que tu déclines, eh bien! achève de te briser, en roulant dans l’agonie de ton talent qui n’est plus de l’époque, dans l’oubli où tu es de tes oeuvres immortelles, éperdu de ton effort impuissant à créer davantage!). See Zola 1960-1967, vol. 4, p. 181; for the novel L’oeuvre: letter 552, n. 11.
Van Gogh refers to Bongrand-Jundt because he erroneously assumed that Zola modelled the character of Bongrand on the painter Gustave Jundt (as he was also mistaken when he thought that Edouard Manet was the model for Claude Lantier; see letter 561). His assumption is probably based on the similarity between Jundt and the character in the novel inasmuch as they are both successful but unhappy painters of peasant life. Bongrand owes his success to his painting La noce au village, which hangs in the Musée du Luxembourg. Jundt painted genre works with titles like La fête au village voisin and Pendant la noce. Zola’s character is tormented by his inability to equal his masterpiece; gout forced Jundt to stop working and he committed suicide (see also letter 776, n. 18).
Brady says that the models for Bongrand were Gustave Flaubert, Charles-François Daubigny, Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet. See Patrick Brady, ‘L’oeuvre’ de Emile Zola. Roman sur les arts. Geneva 1967, p. 243.
15. We have not been able to find any reference to hairstyles in Brazil in Carlyle, but there is a passage about sticks to which fireflies are attached in Sumatra, quoted in On heroes, hero-worship and the heroic in history, a book Van Gogh knew. Since Carlyle links these little creatures with fame and its opposite (‘for one man who can stand prosperity, there are a hundred that will stand adversity’), Van Gogh may have been thinking of this. Carlyle describes how the poet Robert Burns suffered as a result of his suddenly acquired fame and wealth – inquisitive people made his life impossible – and he goes on: ‘Richter says, in the Island of Sumatra there is a kind of “Light-chafers”, large Fire-flies, which people stick upon spits, and illuminate the ways with at night. Persons of condition can thus travel with a pleasant radiance, which they must admire. Great honour to the Fire flies! But – ! –’ (Carlyle 1993, p. 167).
16. The ‘brethren of the common life’ (Fratres vitae communis or Fratres bonae voluntatis) was one of the three foundations spawned by the Modern Devotion. The brotherhood was formed around 1381 in the town of Deventer at the instigation of Geert Grote and Florens Radewijns. They wanted to live a simple, pious life from the fruits of their labour, including writing and teaching, and from church goods and income.
17. The seascape with the large red signature is Fishing boats at sea (F 415 / JH 1452 ). The following works from the consignment are also signed: Haystacks (F 425 / JH 1442 ), The harvest (F 412 / JH 1440 ), Fishing boats at sea (F 417 / JH 1453 ), Sower with setting sun (F 422 / JH 1470 ), Fishing boats on the beach at Saintes-Maries (F 413 / JH 1460 ), Still life with coffeepot (F 410 / JH 1426 ), Wheatfield with setting sun (F 465 / JH 1473 ) and Daisies in a bowl (F 591 / JH 1429).